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Amide's a Medical Imaging Data Examiner (AMIDE) is a completely free tool for viewing, analysing, and registering volumetric medical imaging data sets. It's been written on top of GTK+ , and runs on any system that supports this toolkit (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X with fink, etc.).
3D medical image platform for visualization and image processing. Segmentation with Levels sets. Surface reconstruction with marching Cubes, texture Mapping and Raycasting, DICOM support.
R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T, now Lucent Technologies) by John Chambers and colleagues. R can be considered as a different implementation of S. There are some important differences, but much code written for S runs unaltered under R."
Caret is a free, open-source, software package for structural and functional analyses of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex.
GT.M is a FOSS (AGPL v3) implementation of M (also known as MUMPS), a combination of a procedural programming language well integrated with a hierarchical key-value database engine. M is widely used in enterprise scale healthcare applications and application suites, such as the VistA implementations. GT.M scales up to very large databases (the largest production sites have aggregate databases to several TB) and thousands of concurrent users.
Orthanc aims at providing a simple, yet powerful standalone DICOM server. Orthanc can turn any computer running Windows or Linux into a DICOM store (in other words, a mini-PACS system). Its architecture is lightweight, meaning that no complex database administration is required, nor the installation of third-party dependencies.
"epitools (epidemiology tools) is an R package for epidemiologic computing and graphics."
CTSim simulates the process of transmitting X-rays through phantom objects. These X-ray data are called projections. CTSim reconstructs the original phantom image from the projections using a variety of algorithms. Additionally, CTSim has a wide array of image analysis and image processing functions.
FieldTrip is a Matlab software toolbox for MEG and EEG analysis that is being developed at the Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging of the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour together with collaborating institutes. The development of FieldTrip is currently by funding from the BrainGain and the Human Connectome projects.